Effective Development Environments – Development, Test, Staging/Pre-prod and Production Environments.

The following happens in many software projects –
At start, it seems you only need one environment for your web application, well, at most two:
One development environment (AKA your PC) and one server.

But as time pass, you find you need additional environments:
The clients might want their own testing environment, sometimes you need to have a pre-production environment or a staging environment, so business managers can approve the ongoing content as well as look & feel.

Do you really need these environments? What are these environment good for?

Here is a short description of some of the more popular environments and their purpose.

Let’s start with an environment definition:

Environment – In hosted software (eg web site/application, database not shrinkwrap software) development, environment refers to a server tier designated to a specific stage in a release process. 1

Next, let’s go over a typical product release cycle:

Development Environment

This is where the software is developed. In some situations this could be the developer’s desktop, in other situations this would be a server shared by several developers working together on the same project. This environment should resemble the production environment as much as possible to prevent issues were the software acts differently on production.

Testing Environment

After the application was developed to an agreed stage it is released to the testing environment. This is where the testers ensures the quality of the application, open bugs and review bug fixes. This environment must resemble the production environment accurately, because this is the last safe place to find and fix environment-related bugs.

User Acceptance Test Environment (UAT)

In a client-vendor projects, the software then moves from internal testing (done by the vendor’s testers) to client testing. This is where the client’s testers verify the quality of the application and send issues for the vendor to fix. This is also where the client assesses the application and can request changes to better fit his requirements. Some clients do not require UAT.

Staging Environment (AKA pre production)

The staging site is used to assemble, test and review new versions of a website before it goes into production. The staging phase of the software lifecycle is often tested on hardware that mirrors hardware used in the production environment. The staging site is often different from the development site, and provides a final QA zone that is separate from the development or production environments. 2

Production Environment

This is where the application goes out to the world and become production. Content can be updated from the staging environment in to Production Environment, when available, as well as new application functionality and bug fixes release from UAT or staging environment.

So, how many to I need?

Note that small to medium software projects might not need all environments, on the other hand, from time to time you might want to add additional environments (for example to accommodate separate concurrent versions of the same application, or stress/load environment)

To make things even more complex, you might not need to have all these environments up and running on the same time – you might want to buy the Staging Environment hardware only after the first release to the Testing Environment, in order to save money.


The main purpose of these environments is to improve the development, testing, and release processes in client-server applications.

There is no magic number of environments that make everything work OK. hopefully, with this article, you can determine what best suites your project.

It is the job of the architect, project manager, operations manager or change manager (pick one) to determine which environments are needed, to make sure these environments are in place and on time, in order to make the developers, testers, and client’s life easier and happier.

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Amir Shevat

Amir Shevat is the global Startup Outreach lead in Google Developer Relations (g.co/launch). Previously, Amir Led Google Campus Tel Aviv and was the co founder of several startups.

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12 Responses

  1. Harsh says:

    Any idea how much % of IT spend should be dedicated to Development/Staging environment compared to Production environment? Is there a benchmark?.

  2. Marylyn says:

    Bookmarked!!,I really like your blog!

  3. anonymous says:

    Hey there, what a great blog. Glad I found you.
    Erin at http://www.prayerthegate.com

  4. anonymous says:

    great blog.

  5. anonymous says:

    hey Amir, there’s some book reference in this field that you recommmend me?
    thanks in advance

  6. Amir Shevat says:

    A few professional friends read and recommended Practical Development Environments, it has good reviews in Amazon too.

    Amir Shevat

  7. anonymous says:

    I hadn’t really ever considered these environments in these terms. You make great points. Great post!

  8. anonymous says:

    thanks a lot for the post! It was very useful.I’ve been deliberating just how many i need to have, now i have a clearer idea.

    Thanks again.

    Hire a Geek

  9. anonymous says:

    Awesome post mate. I really enjoy your blog. Keep up the good work.

  10. anonymous says:

    I completely agree, thanks for the great post!

  1. March 7, 2011

    […] Effective Development Environments: Development, Test, Staging/Pre-prod and Production Environments […]

  2. March 9, 2011

    […] Effective Development Environments: Development, Test, Staging/Pre-prod and Production Environments […]

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